QuestionQUESTION React to the current status report of the Coral Gables… QUESTIONReact to the current status report of the Coral Gables Smart City project. Briefly, does the progress being made match the societal and technical visions found in the case study paper? Defend your answer.REVIEW the below matter for the answer.SAMPLE ANSWER :The Coral Gables smart city engineering framework allows IoT sensor data and other civic data and value to flow at high speeds, with high security, and high reliability; to be aggregated, integrated, and correlated for back-end business intelligence processing and analytics; to connect to cyberphysical interfaces that provide real-time visibility on urban and environmental variables; and to provide value, trust, and insight to the smart city ecosystem. Actionable sensor data is made available to citizens via dashboard visualization and statistics broken down by hour, day, week, and month. This information is utilized extensively in urban planning, traffic and civil engineering, and business to develop commercial strategies (retail, service, etc.). The Internet of Things provides the City of Coral Gables with a physical world interface that allows real-time viewing of urban and environmental events, improving situational awareness, early detection, faster response, and actionable business analytics for smart city decision-making. All of this, combined with AI and other Fourth Industrial Revolution cornerstone technologies, improves the City’s operational effectiveness and efficiency in providing services to its inhabitants, as well as their quality of life. Coral Gables IoT includes traffic sensors, buoy sensors in the city’s main water canals, environmental sensors in Downtown, and sound sensors with gun-shot detection algorithms. As a result, I believe the current situation is in line with the social and technological concepts stated in the case study essay.Smart City Case Study: City of Coral Gables Leverages the Internet of Things to Improve Quality of LifeAbstractThe City of Coral Gables, Florida, has implemented a smart city engineering framework that features a diverse array of cyber-phys[1]ical systems (CPS), Internet of Things (IOT) platforms, and smart connected devices for numerous applications. The City’s IoT net[1]work relies on a transport layer of high-speed resilient communications with fiber optics and wireless infrastructure that covers the City’s most critical arteries, facilities, smart districts in Downtown as well as university campus and residential areas. The City’s IoT systems rely on distributed cloud platforms and datacenters where data is aggregated, integrated, analyzed and correlated in a busi[1]ness intelligence and analytics backend with computer vision, artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) capabilities. Real[1]tix`me IoT data is visualized and presented to the public and all stakeholders for consumption and collaboration via the Coral Gables Smart City Hub public platform.Use and PurposeSome of the City’s use cases and applications include traffic sensors (pedestrians, vehicles, bicycles, visitors), RF sensors (traffic behavioral patterns), public safety sensors (ALPR, CCTV cameras, smart policing and street safety devices), environmen[1]tal sensors (waterways, air quality, noise); smart parking sensors (available/occupied spots detection using computer vision and AI), a street network of smart lighting controllers, smart city digi[1]tal interactive kiosks, smart building structural health monitoring sensors, telemetry SCADA sensors and actuators, drones, fleet management systems, mobile LiDAR photonics and connected vehicles, among other uses. For our City, IoT sensor data is strategic and becomes actionable information for traffic engineers, public safe[1]ty units, urban planners, city management, first respond[1]ers, academia, businesses, technologists, and the public in general. Open IoT data aggregated in the smart city hub and private IoT back-end data is studied by university researchers, marketing and city analysts and is actively used by entrepreneurs, planners, police and fire officers, engi[1]neers, city officials and other constituents that are part of the smart city ecosystem. IoT platforms, systems and data are integrated with citywide enterprise systems and data governance frameworks for efficiency, security, compliance and interoperability, as shown in the City’s horizontal inte[1]gration topology (discussed later). IoT data is helping Coral Gables engineers design safer roads, crosswalks, curbs, and multimodal mobility infrastruc[1]ture, and is helping urban planners and city officials measure development impact and effectiveness of City infrastructure projects and government initiatives. This data also helps local businesses improve sales and marketing strategies, helps academic researchers conduct studies (environmental, crime, urban, traffic, technology), and helps developers, builders and real estate agencies with tools and actionable informa[1]tion for development and construction. Furthermore, IoT data is helping public safety, emergency management offi[1]cers and first responders with situational awareness and high visibility; among many other use cases and benefits for our constituents. Planning, Engineering and Design Engineering Framework The Coral Gables smart city engineering framework allows IoT sensor data and other civic data and value to flow with high speed, security and reliability; to be aggregated, integrated and correlated for back-end business intelligence processing and analytics; to connect to cyber-physical interfaces that provide high visibility on real-time urban and environmental variables; and to deliver value, trust and insight to the smart city ecosys[1]tem (Fig. 1). Since it is paramount that all members of the smart city ecosystem be able to trust each other, there are full-cy[1]cle requirements embedded in this framework to ensure that interoperability, security and resilience are an integral criteria of all IoT projects from early ideation and design, and never an afterthought. Smart City Horizontal Integration Model IoT and CPS functionalities, systems, data and value streams are part of the Coral Gables Smart City Horizontal Integra[1]tion Model. This model implements a systems engineering topology and architecture which is GIS and data centric for smart city interoperability. In this design, a centralized City dashboard provides City leaders and staff comprehensive and robust visibility over enterprise functions and environ[1]mental variables. The design includes key City metrics and performance indicators by location and by discipline, as well as the ability to retrieve GIS-based, location-aware, real-time information and metadata from multiple, diverse sources connected to the data marketplace through a central data bus with inter-cloud replication and centralized API man[1]agement. Data governance rules and unified access control mechanisms are built into the model for security, privacy and compliance (Fig. 2).Funding and SustainabilityEarly IoT projects were funded as R&D and innovation pilots by leveraging IT Op-Ex cost savings from quality engineering and lean six sigma process improvement programs. Other IoT imple[1]mentations that are part of the Coral Gables Smart Districts initiative leveraged City capital improvement projects such as streetscapes, public safety infrastructure, renovations and new buildings, thereby seizing those opportunities to incorporate smart technology components and fiber optics conduits to the design-build process, avoiding the costly construction side of these kinds of projects. IoT cyberinfrastructure is maintained and improved over continuous, comprehensive asset manage[1]ment and operation cycles that follow industrial engineering plans and standards, and is an integral aspect of our bimodal IT strategic plans and smart city innovation programs.GovernanceIoT information assets and cyberinfrastructure are managed and regulated through a comprehensive set of data and technology governance guidelines and knowledge libraries comprised of standards, codes, charters, policies, compliance and auditing programs, best practices, and various frameworks in use, includ[1]ing the ones produced by government regulatory entities and industry professional organizations such as IEEE, NFPA and the NIST GCTC superclusters. Adequate API management, IT asset management (ITAM) and risk management programs are key to the governance and sustainability of our smart city IoT infra[1]structure, since it is indeed an extension of the enterprise and must be systematically treated as such.Coral Gables IoT Use Case Applications IoT Data Use Case List (Fig. 3) Traffic sensors (vehicles, pedestrians, bicycles metrics.) Smart district applications using various technologies and methodol[1]ogies such as edge computing, computer vision, laser count[1]ers, server analytics, AI/ML, mobile trailers, 360 HD/4K cameras, and other tools.Custom applications such as a low-cost ad-hoc solution for traffic studies architected with trailers, wireless routers, and computer vision with open AI/ML algorithms. Environmental sensors (water quality and flooding sensors, air quality sensors, noise sensors). Water: Buoy sensors in the City’s main water canals were implemented in collaboration with Florida International Uni[1]versity (FIU) researchers. Real-time waterway sensor data includes salinity, resistivity, conductivity, depth (flooding detection), density, pressure, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and other parameters that provide valuable data to water scientists, marine biologists, oceanographers, emergency managers, city engineers and the public in general. Air: Environmental sensors in Downtown Coral Gables (now expanding to major traffic arteries in the City) report air qual[1]ity data including carbon emissions (CO/CO2) and air pollut[1]ants (PPM, VOC). As public adoption of electric, hybrid, and high-MPG fuel-efficient vehicles and other green technologies increases over time, air quality sensors will provide histori[1]cal data and trends analysis on carbon footprint to measure against the City’s sustainability master plan benchmark goals. Sound and Noise: Noise sensors measure dBs in Downtown areas. Sound sensors with gun-shot detection algorithms are also deployed in various smart light nodes of the public safe[1]ty geofence RF sensors for traffi c pattern detection and behavioral analyt[1]ics. Smart lighting controllers and smart lights. Public safety sensors: Automated License Plate Readers (ALPR, geofence), CCTV, speed and red-light enforcement devices, Telemedicine technology and Electronic Patient Care (ePCR) mobile systems. Fleet management, connected mobility, transportation (Trol[1]ley tracker, fl eet route optimization, AVL, mobile LiDAR tech[1]nology, Freebee EV green fl eet, micro-mobility partners). The City of Coral Gables has the largest municipal electric vehicle fl eet in the State of Florida. Smart Parking IoT sensors in garage gates (that report real[1]time occupancy to the City’s smart parking app via a cloud API), street parking smart devices, smart parking R&D pilot for on-street parking IoT, and Smart Mobility Hubs featuring IoT-based Automated Parking Guidance Systems (designed for new parking garages currently under construction). Smart City interactive touchscreen Kiosks, with embedded environmental sensors and smart applications. Drones for Public Safety, fi rst responders, and various emer[1]gency operations including rescue-recon in hurricane-im[1]pacted areas with restricted access due to flooding, fallen trees and other terrain hazards; drones for LiDAR and 3D GIS imagery, drones for Media and special events, and other applications. Mobile workforce and engaged citizens with smart devices connected to the City’s enterprise systems and Smart City Hub mobile applications, open APIs and collaboration plat[1]forms. Telemetry SCADA sensors and actuators. Smart building management and automation systems (HVAC, energy, lighting), Network Management Systems (NMS) nodes, and Smart Microgrid Resilient Energy System (RES) pilots. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM), work in progress, at the engineering phase: new Public Safety Building smart technol[1] ogy design (servo-velocimeters and servo-accelerometers for wind-induced vibration, anemometers for wind profile, stress sensors, concrete health sensors, roof substrate moisture sensor, and others). A preliminary smart building technology engineer[1]ing and design plan is part of the ongoing construction City HUb PUbliC PlatForm, iot oPen dataInternet of Things dashboards are one of the most visited and used features of the Coral Gables homegrown Smart City Hub Public Platform. The Hub is a “digital supermarket”, a platform of civic platforms, that brings together in one place our City’s digital equity for citizens and all stakeholders of the smart city ecosystem.The Hub includes: Internet of Things portals, dashboards and analytics: real-time pedestrian and vehicular traffi c data dashboards, and environ[1]mental sensors data. A Data Marketplace. Transparency Portals. A Community Intelligence Center. Open Data Platforms and GIS portals. Business Intelligence Dashboards with government KPI/KBI metrics. An Application Store. eGovernment enterprise systems and digital citizen services. Citizen Engagement tools, portals and initiatives. The Smart City Hub brings value, effi ciencies, open data and analytics, actionable information and insight for residents, busi[1]nesses, fi rst responders, researchers, urban planners and deci[1]sion makers. It democratizes City data science and technologies and fosters citizen engagement, mobility, accessibility, inclusion, crowdsourcing and collaboration. This platform is open to the public on the City’s website at: ligHting systemsThe City has installed smart lighting controllers on LED light poles in areas of the smart districts and the City’s geofence, such as Miracle Mile in Downtown Coral Gables, and several important traffic arteries. These controllers provide intelligent ON/OFF switching, dimming control, GPS, highly accurate power metering, analog and digital sensor inputs and constant status and health monitoring of the City’s lighting fixtures. They also allow City staff to manage the lights either individually or as a group and apply business intelligence rules for energy and cost efficiencies, through a centralized management system that also runs reports on energy consumption and LED burn hours, and generate automatic alerts when there are issues affecting the light fixtures. Each pole is labelled and geolocated in the system with GPS coordinates to be easily identifiable and locat[1]ed for maintenance and troubleshooting purposes. In Phase II of this implementation the City will integrate the controllers with its facility and asset management system so that it can automatically create tickets whenever a problem with the lights occurs, helping City staff to promptly respond and troubleshoot accordingly. Connected Street Sensors Together with smart light poles, the City also deployed dozens of IoT sensors in Downtown and other Coral Gables areas. These sensors report vehicle and pedestrian traffic data in real time from several locations and in multiple directions, includ[1]ing all major blocks and intersections. Additionally, environ[1]mental sensors in Downtown Coral Gables report air quality data including carbon emissions (CO/CO2) and air pollutants (PPM, VOC). Other IoT sensors in Downtown, currently in integration phase, are also measuring noise dBs and detecting occupied/available street parking spaces. The IoT traffic sensor dashboards are available to the public on the Coral Gables smart city hub platform under the Internet of Things section of the portal. Ad-hoc Portable Multimodal Traffic Study IoT Solution The City completed a first proof of concept (POC) of a low[1]cost, ad-hoc portable IoT solution to measure multimodal traf[1]fic in areas outside its smart districts. This POC was developed to generate multimodal traffic analytics (vehicles, bicycles, pedestrian statistics) from an urban area where the City is prov[1]ing traffic solutions. Traffic engineers need this data to analyze and report metrics and benchmarks for their multimodal strat[1]egies and value propositions. Some areas of the City were “off-the-smart-grid” and did not have City telecommunication infrastructure, cameras, sensors or any other smart city technol[1]ogy like the ones deployed in the Coral Gables smart districts and major arteries; therefore, provisioning IoT sensors, CCTV cameras, high-speed links or other smart technologies would have been in this case costly and taken weeks to complete. To overcome that challenge, the City’s IT Department tem[1]porarily repurposed one of the portable CCTV public safety trailers, finding a way to route the camera feeds to the City’s IoT servers in the cloud, and then using AI and computer vision algorithms to automatically detect, classify and count traffic objects. That kind of video digital processing is something that the City normally does in other areas using optical sensors with edge computing and analytics specifically designed for that purpose and running homegrown applications and APIs in the backend for visualization and integration into the Coral Gables smart city hub. For this new scenario, City staff developed a working solution that was able to count vehicles, bicycles and pedestrians in any area of the City (Fig. 4). This pilot solution gathered statistics for one week, which were analyzed and presented with a quick turnaround. The City did not have to fund additional expenditures for this solution since the IT team repurposed existing resources and developed the solution in-house.This solution provided a low-cost, proven, rapid-deployable, ad-hoc portable IoT solution that can satisfy urgent needs for street and environmental data studies. It provides a way to measure real-time and historical multi-modal traffic using an HD camera, a cellular data connection, and a server running computer vision apps with open-source AI algorithms in the cloud. An even lower cost version of this solution could use an existing street pole or faade for colocation (where permitted), one camera instead of a CCTV trailer, and a dedicated off-net[1]work edge computer instead of cloud server analytics, and be relocated and repurposed many times as needed. The City conducted measurement validation controls for this experiment and found an 8 percent margin of error in the vehicle counts, even though that particular AI application had been trained for more than a year. Also, city staff found a slightly higher margin of error in the bicycle counts. The City trained the new bicycle count AI application for three days and adjusted the results with a +8 percent and a +10 percent error correction based on the data auditing process, which was conducted with human observations of 15-minute random video samples. There were challenges training these practical AI’s and establishing realistic accuracy expectations of computer vision algorithms. Besides the AI application itself and its machine learning curve, some of the external factors that may affect the accuracy of this solution are: poor environmental and artificial street lighting (mitigated by using camera sensors with infrared capabilities), the speed of the vehicles, and vehicle lights, among other factors.Integrated Street IoT Solutions for Aesthetics, Footprint and ConsolidationThe City started a pilot of new-to-market smart city street tech[1]nologies that were recently introduced at the CES 2020 Smart City Expo. Systems deployed in the smart district public areas are required to have an aesthetically-pleasing modular industrial design that can add value to the Coral Gables smart district projects and help address some of the current implementa[1]tion challenges by: minimizing the smart city technology foot[1]print in urban areas; improving aesthetics and functionality for street technology hubs (Wi-Fi, IoT, CCTV/ALPR/Safety); and consolidating technology for better integration and interoper[1]ability. This integrated technology can also pave the way for a well-planned, optimized, less disruptive rollout and adoption of 5G small cell communication systems in the City. A system like this acts as a “smart city furniture” that satisfies the city’s smart needs by using several modules for traffic management, environmental analyses, and city surveillance integrated in one single unit. With a modular design, this kind of multiuse device is capable of different functions with exchangeable modules and can facilitate and expedite the expansion of the City’s smart technology to new districts.Smart Parking R&D PilotThe City is conducting a smart parking R&D pilot project using computer vision and AI to detect and count empty/occupied street parking spots in Downtown Coral Gables in real time. This solution uses a combination of camera sensors, edge and cloud processing, data analytics and computer vision apps with AI/ML algorithms, leveraging a commercial SDK. The City’s IT team has been “training” the AI application, so the detection and the counts become more accurate over time. The team is also working with a software engineering company integrat[1]ing this solution with the rest of the City’s IoT dashboards in a central IoT platform. This system is currently detecting street parking spaces and occupancy status and generating statistics for management (Fig. 5). Other Smart Parking CPS use cases in the City include: smart parking sensors in garage gates that report real-time occupancy to the City’s smart parking app via a cloud API; street parking smart connected devices, ALPR for parking enforcement, and new Smart Mobility Hubs featuring IoT and Automated Parking Guidance Systems (designed for new parking facilities under construction). The Smart Mobility Hubs automated gateless parking guidance systems allow real-time, accurate parking space counting, wayfinding signage, color-coded guidance lighting, parking signage, car finder/locator, security features, camera-based multi-function sensor system, cloud data plat[1]form, electronic parking kiosks, user interface software and mobile apps. Those features maximize garage parking efficien[1]cy, speed up the parking process, and enhance the customer parking experience, since customers can park faster and safer.Smart Building Structural Health Monitoring IoT Smart Building IoT strategies and initiatives allow the City of Coral Gables to obtain actionable data from cyber-physical systems such as IoT sensors and smart devices to enable gov[1]ernmental civil infrastructures to become sensing platforms that are easier and more practical to deploy and maintain over their lifetime. Smart building sensor data analytics also provides real[1]time and historical visibility over environmental and occupation[1]al impact factors, during normal conditions, over maintenance cycles, and during extreme wind and precipitation conditions. The City’s Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) IoT plan focus[1]es on a smart building structural and operational sensing IoT platform to be implemented in the new Public Safety Building, currently under construction and scheduled to open in 2020. Some of the applications and functionalities include SHM, building energy optimization and control, indoor environmental quality control, and building automation.SHM IoT Integration Requirements: Civil infrastructure sensor data will be horizontally integrated with the City’s IoT/CPS enterprise data platforms and data analytics in the cloud. Data visualization will be integrated with the Coral Gables Smart City Hub public platform and its IoT live business intel[1]ligence dashboards for both internal and public users. Structural sensor networks and data traffic will be segregated from the City’s production networks. All related data traffic will be encrypted according to applica[1]ble compliance requirements. All outdoor electronics and sensors will be hardened and installed to withstand wind speeds as per Florida Building Code and New PSB building design specifications. All design, engineering and installation to be done in compli[1]ance with NEC/NESC codes and IEEE 802 Standard.IoT Structural Sensors Contemplated in the Design: Servo-velocity and Servo-accelerometer sensors and instru[1]mentation to measure wind-induced vibration. Anemometer installed at the roof level to measure wind pro[1]file: turbulence intensity, gust factor, wind speed, longitudi[1]nal, transversal, and torsional components of the wind load. Indoor humidity and temperature sensors (at least one per floor, and at specific rooms where environmental controls are specially required, such as equipment rooms, 911 center, EOC, CIC, and others) Building degradation sensors (corrosion and quality of con[1]crete)-embedded IoT sensor options: electrochemical, electromagnetic, FBG optical detection, and IRT infrared thermography (moisture detection at the roof substrate, and checkpoints in building foundation and structural support areas to be determined by structural engineers.)Situational Awareness DashboardThe City developed and launched the Coral Gables Waze Data Dashboard, a homegrown traffic data analysis and GIS application that leverages the data sharing partnership the City started with Waze as part of the Connected Citizens Program (CCP), which aggregates real-time data from the smart devices of the drivers using the popular navigation platform within the City. The dashboard visualizes live data and statistics from the Waze community/crowdsourcing platform, and provides valuable and actionable information for public safety staff, first responders, mobile workforce, field inspectors, traffic engi[1]neers, urban planners, technologists, researchers, businesses, and the public in general. This crowdsourced data allows the City’s data scientists to perform historical data analysis and predictive trend analytics and present it to the stakeholders as added value. The public can access this dashboard on the Smart City Hub public platform under the Community Intelli[1]gence Center section.Mobile LiDAR PhotonicsUsing mobile LiDAR technology, the City conducted a high-res[1]olution road and right of way (ROW) asset inventory and digita[1]lization, signs, sidewalks, storm drains, gutters, ADA pedestrian ramps, pavement analysis, on 300 miles of city roads, lever[1]aging CycloMedia 360/geoCyclorama imagery technology. Subsequent pilot applications will use ML to predict future road conditions and plan preventive maintenance. ROW LiDAR data in cloud platforms is horizontally integrated with the City’s GIS platform and ROW asset management system, which are them[1]selves integrated with the City’s smart city hub platform. The goal is allowing the City to analyze and visualize LiDAR data on the hub and leverage the geoCyclorama imagery for further vision analytics and object detection and classification.Community Intelligence Center (CIC)The CIC facility has hosted multiple use cases of IoT that lever[1]age data analytics, computer vision, AI/ML, and system integra[1]tion. Examples of those cases include using CCTV, computer vision, video analytics and AI in real-time to find a missing child in just a couple of minutes in the middle of a crowded event in Downtown; using crime analysis, forensics and predictive analytics to lower crime and solve cases; usage during hurri[1]cane emergency management operations combining computer vision, AI/ML, data analytics, CCTV, ALPR, edge computing, GIS hubs, and other technologies. Several papers and case studies have been published by City IT staff with university researchers and professional organizations about those use casesBenefits and ROISome of the success metrics associated with the City’s IoT proj[1]ects include: operational efficiencies (higher visibility, insight, decision making speedup, response time reduction, cost savings), public safety (crime reduction, accident reduction, response times improvement, higher situational awareness, resil[1]iency, network survivability), environmental (energy efficiency, water/air/environmental conservation) and various quality of life and livability metrics (improvements in mobility, digital inclu[1]sion, accessibility, citizen engagement, customer satisfaction), among other indicators. Besides those quantitative metrics, IoT technologies implemented in Coral Gables have added value to our communities, fostered economic growth, improved citizen services, helped solve problems and address challenges in our City through the numerous use case applications described in this articleIoT Research and CollaborationThe City of Coral Gables collaborates with research institutions and professional organizations in government, industry, science and academia in the fields of Smart Cities, STEM and Innova[1]tion. Some of our strategic partners in IoT projects include the University of Miami (UM), Florida International University (FIU, the first university in the U.S. to offer a bachelor’s degree in the Internet of Things), IEEE, IISE, NIST GCTC superclusters, NTIA, IoT Consortium (IoTC), Intelligence Edge/IoT Evolution Expo, Center for Digital Government, CTA, Smart Cities Connect, Smart Cities Council, Smart City Expo, other municipalities, chambers of commerce, economic development and business organizations, and tech providers. These active collaborations include joint projects and initiatives, papers in STEM journals and publications, presentations at conferences and expos, com[1]petitions/hackathons, demo labs and R&D pilots. Our current areas of joint research include 5G, Blockchain, AR/MR/VR, BIM, spatial computing, AI, ML/DL, AV, smart grids, IIoT, RPA, enterprise business capabilities in post-modern ERP, curbside management, and supercomputing data analytics for mathemat[1]ical modeling and horizontal correlation.ConclusionsCity constituents benefit from actionable sensor data with dash[1]boards visualization and statistics by hour/day/week/month. This data is actively used for urban planning, for traffic and civil engineering to design better and safer roads and infrastructure; by businesses to design commercial strategies (retail, service), grow sales, understand market and consumer needs; and by emergency managers and first responders for situational aware[1]ness and incident response. The Internet of Things provides City of Coral Gables with an interface to the physical world that enables real-time visibility over urban and environmental conditions, boosting situational awareness, early detection, faster response, and actionable business intelligence for decision making in the smart city eco[1]system. All the above, in conjunction with AI and other corner[1]stone technologies of the 4th Industrial Revolution, augment the City’s operational effectiveness and efficiency providing services to its constituents and improving their quality of life. More information is available at: ScienceEngineering & TechnologySoftware engineering ISM 6124

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